The patient’s personal history).
The case study method often involves simply observing what happens to, or reconstructing ‘the case history’ of a single participant or group of individuals (such as a school class or a specific social group), i. e. He still vividly remembers the horrific scene as the drunk driver ran the red light, plowing down his fiancée right before his eyes. GW, VII, p. 379-463; Case studies allow a researcher to investigate a topic in far more detail than might be possible if they were trying to deal with a large number of research participants (nomothetic approach) with the aim of ‘averaging’.
The case study is not itself a research method, but researchers select methods of data collection and analysis that will generate material suitable for case studies. They should not be used to make a diagnosis. Psychopathol. Forsch., I, p. 357-421; He raced to her side, embracing her crumpled, bloody body as she died in his arms in the middle of the crosswalk.
Because they are based on the analysis of qualitative (i. e. Someone with a professional qualification. The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider. Even though she has worked for the same, thriving company for over 6 years, she’s found herself worrying constantly about losing her job and being unable to provide for her children. When he tries to get her to open up about what’s bothering her, she pushes him away with an abrupt “everything’s fine”. Although she hasn’t ever considered suicide, Jessica has found herself increasingly dissatisfied with her life. If the symptoms sound similar to those that you (or a loved one) are experiencing, please contact your primary physician or a mental health professional for an evaluation as soon as possible. Jessica is a 28 year-old married female. She’s been having frequent thoughts of wishing she was dead. This worry has been troubling her for the past 8 months. The publication of this information does not constitute the practice of medicine, and this information does not replace the advice of your physician or other health care provider. The is also an extremely effective procedure for obtaining information about an individual, and it may be used to collect comments from the person's friends, parents, employer, work mates and others who have a good knowledge of the person, as well as to obtain facts from the person him or herself.
This makes it clear that the case study is a method that should only be used by a psychologist, therapist or psychiatrist, i. e. A. (2008). No matter how hard he tries to forget, he frequently finds himself reliving the entire incident as if it was happening all over. Since the accident, Josh has been plagued with nightmares about the accident almost every night. Letters, photographs, notes) or official document (e. g. These sample case studies are for illustration only. Sex Reassignment at Birth: The client also reports detail of events from his or her point of view. Descriptive) data a lot depends on the interpretation the psychologist places on the information she has acquired. He does, however, have an estranged aunt who has been in and out of psychiatric hospitals over the years due to erratic and bizarre behavior. [ ]The information provided on the PsyWeb. com is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her health professional.
He’s stopped working out, playing his guitar, or playing basketball with his friends – all activities he once really enjoyed. She has very high standards for herself and can be very self-critical when she fails to meet them. Adolescent Medicine, 151(3), 298-304Freud, S. (1909a). Despite her best efforts, she hasn’t been able to shake the negative thoughts. Ever since the worry started, Kristen has found herself feeling restless, tired, and tense. Lately, she has struggled with significant feelings of worthlessness and shame due to her inability to perform as well as she always has in the past. For the past few weeks Jessica has felt unusually fatigued and found it increasingly difficult to concentrate at work. His parents worry about how detached and emotionally flat he’s become. [ ]Martin is a 21 year-old business major at a large university. In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual. Sigmundson, K. (1997). He has since avoided that entire area of town. Normally an outgoing, fun-loving guy, Josh has become increasingly withdrawn, “jumpy”, and irritable since his fiancé’s death. The. Case notes, clinical notes, appraisal reports). She has called in sick on several occasions, which is completely unlike her. Her insomnia has been keeping him awake as she tosses and turns for an hour or two after they go to bed. Always speak with your primary health care provider before engaging in any form of self treatment. The researcher then writes up the information from both sources above as the case study, and interprets the information. Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out. Only someone qualified to diagnose and treat a person can conduct a formal case study relating to atypical (i. e. They are an important way of illustrating theories and can help show how different aspects of a person's life are related to each other. They focus on the individual case without reference to a comparison group.
Case studies are widely used in psychology and amongst the best known were the ones carried out by. This means that there is a lot of scope for observer bias and it could be that the subjective opinions of the psychologist intrude in the assessment of what the data means. For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit the particular theories about behavior (e. g. ). She has a very demanding, high stress job as a second year medical resident in a large hospital. On those days she stays in bed all day, watching TV or sleeping. At home, Jessica’s husband has noticed changes as well. Most of this information is likely to be (i. e. He is now so far behind in his coursework that he will fail if something doesn’t change very soon. Although Martin occasionally has a few beers with his friends, he’s never been known to abuse alcohol or use drugs. On many occasions they’ve overheard him whispering in an agitated voice, even though there is no one nearby. Lately, he has refused to answer or make calls on his cell phone, claiming that if he does it will activate a deadly chip that was implanted in his brain by evil aliens. His parents have tried to get him to go with them to a psychiatrist for an evaluation, but he refuses. In The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pages 169-306Freud, S. (1909b). Thematic coding) etc. She finds herself mentally rehearsing all the worse-case scenarios regarding losing her job, including ending up homeless. [ ]Josh is a 27 year-old male who recently moved back in with his parents after his fiancée was killed by a drunk driver 3 months ago. She has had a successful, well-paying career for the past several years in upper-level management. The method is therefore important for psychologists who adopt a point of view (i. e. ).
Because a case study deals with only one person/event/group we can never be sure whether the conclusions drawn from this particular case apply elsewhere. Psychology case studies on stress.
Retrospective), as well as to significant events which are currently occurring in his or her everyday life. In order to produce a fairly detailed and comprehensive profile of the person, the psychologist may use various types of accessible data, such as medical records, employer's reports, school reports or psychological test results. Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis, SE, 10: 151-318. McLeod, S. Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods (e. g. ). The information is mainly biographical and relates to events in the individual's past (i. e. Neither the owners or employees of PsyWeb. com nor the author(s) of site content take responsibility for any possible consequences from any treatment, procedure, exercise, dietary modification, action or application of medication which results from reading this site. The research may also continue for an extended period of time, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen. The case study research method originated in clinical medicine (the case history, i. e. For students of these disciplines they can give a vivid insight into what those who suffer from mental illness often have to endure.
Case studies are often conducted in clinical medicine and involve collecting and reporting descriptive information about a particular person or specific environment, such as a school. She often paces in her office when she’s there alone. This information is solely for informational and educational purposes. Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. He conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses. Freud's most famous case studies include and The Rat Man (1909b). Abnormal) behavior or atypical development. The procedure used in a case study means that the researcher provides a description of the behavior. She’s shown little interest in sex and has had difficulties falling asleep at night. They can help us generate new ideas (that might be tested by other methods). She’s had several embarrassing moments in meetings where she has lost track of what she was trying to say. When she goes to bed at night, it’s as if her brain won’t shut off. Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. She graduated with top honors in both college and medical school. Retrieved from www. simplypsychology. org/case-study. html– Curtiss (1977) Case Study Method. This is also true of Money’s interpretation of the case study (Diamond, 1997) when he ignored evidence that went against his theory. Diamond, M., This comes from interviews and other sources, such as observation. A good case study should always make clear which information is factual description and which is an inference or the opinion of the researcher.
Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behaviour that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways. He has accused them on several occasions of conspiring with the aliens to have him killed so they can remove his brain and put it inside one of their own. He had to quit his job because his office was located in the building right next to the little café where he was meeting his fiancée for lunch the day she died. Even today case histories are one of the main methods of investigation in and psychiatry. Long-term Review and Clinical Implications. Archives of Pediatrics Research which only looks into the measurable aspects of human behaviour is not likely to give us insights into the subjective dimension to experience which is so important to and humanistic psychologists. Case studies are often used in exploratory research. Jessica has always been a high achiever. Jb. There is an ethical issue of competence.
Grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, text interpretation, e. g.